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    Questions and answers on Israeli settlements
    26.09.17
    AFP

    A Palestinian gunman opened fire at an entrance to the Israeli settlement of Har Adar in the occupied West Bank on Tuesday, killing three security personnel and wounding another. Here are some key questions and answers on Israeli settlements: - What are settlements? - Settlements are Israeli villages, towns and even cities built on territory Israel seized during the Six-Day War of 1967. Some 430,000 Israeli settlers currently live in the occupied West Bank, along with 2.6 million Palestinians. A further 200,000 Israelis live in annexed east Jerusalem, along with at least 300,000 Palestinians, who want to make the sector the capital of their future state. Israel also seized part...

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    Recap of Syrian chemical weapons attacks since 2011
    06.09.17
    AFP

    United Nations war crimes investigators said Wednesday they have evidence showing the Syrian regime carried out an April sarin gas attack in Idlib province that killed dozens of people. The attack was the latest in a string of chemical strikes since the Syrian conflict began in March 2011. Here is a recap. - Damascus threatens to use chemical weapons - July 23, 2012: The Syrian government acknowledges for the first time that it has chemical weapons and threatens to use them in the event of military operations by Western countries, but not against its own population. The following month, then US president Barack Obama says the use or even movement of such weapons would be a "red...

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    Kenya since 2007-2008 post-election violence
    08.08.17
    AFP

    Below are key dates since post-election violence in Kenya in 2007-2008 left more than 1,100 people dead, the worst violence in the east African country since independence in 1963: - 2007-2008: post election violence - On December 27, 2007, outgoing president Mwai Kibaki is proclaimed winner again but his challenger Raila Odinga says the vote was rigged. Clashes in the following weeks kill more than 1,100 people and force 600,000 from their homes, in a country that had previously been renowned for its stability. The epicentre of the violence is the Rift Valley, pitting members of the Kalenjin and Luo ethnic communities, who mainly back Odinga, against the Kikuyu, to which Kibaki...

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    Kenya: five things to know
    08.08.17
    AFP

    Kenya, which was holding elections on Tuesday a decade after deadly post-poll violence, is one of east Africa's leading economies with a crucial tourism sector based on safaris and tropical beaches. - Post-election violence - Kenya was a British colony until independence on December 12, 1963. Jomo Kenyatta, the country's first president, died in office in August 1978, to be succeeded by Daniel arap Moi. In late 1991 Moi abandoned the single party system under international pressure and won presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. Moi was replaced by Mwai Kibaki in late 2002 and the main opposition National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) won the legislative elections the same year. Kibaki...

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    Uganda's brutal Lord's Resistance Army: timeline
    25.04.17
    AFP

    Key dates in the history of Uganda's brutal Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), which the United States and Uganda have decided to stop hunting down, saying the rebels have been neutralised. One of Africa's longest-surviving rebel groups, the LRA has terrorised parts of central Africa for 30 years, becoming notorious for mutilations, massacres, kidnappings, and the forced enrolment of children. - January 1987: a year after the takeover of Uganda by rebel leader Yoweri Museveni, voodoo priestess Alice Auma Lakwena takes up arms to topple the new regime. Her Holy Spirit Movement is defeated at the end of 1987. - 1988: Joseph Kony, presented as Lakwena's cousin, takes over the fight at the...

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    Joseph Kony: uncatchable, brutal rebel chief
    25.04.17
    AFP

    Brutal rebel commander Joseph Kony has sowed terror across four African nations for three decades, even evading capture by US and Ugandan soldiers who have now given up the chase. The former Catholic altar boy became one of Africa's most notorious rebels at the head of his Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), combining religious mysticism with an astute guerilla mind and bloodthirsty ruthlessness. The US passed a law in 2010 to deploy around 100 special forces to work with regional armies in hunting down Kony but is now withdrawing while the rebel leader remains at large, though his power is much diminished. Kony's marauding insurgency claimed to be fighting to overthrow the Ugandan...

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    From exile to appeal: Key dates since Habre fled Chad
    25.04.17
    AFP

    Key dates in Chad since the overthrow of former dictator Hissene Habre to his appeal against a life sentence for war crimes and crimes against humanity alleged to have occurred between 1982 and 1990: - Exile in Senegal - - Dec. 11, 1990: Habre is overthrown by rebel troops led by Idriss Deby and flees to Senegal where he gets political asylum. His regime is accused by rights groups of brutally repressing, torturing or killing opponents since 1982. - Investigation - - May 21, 1992: A Chadian commission of inquiry says Habre's regime killed more than 40,000 people, many of them...

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    Tensions stoked up in the Balkans
    12.03.17
    AFP

    The devastating wars in the Balkans ended almost two decades ago but tensions have spiked throughout the region, where a battle for influence is playing out between Russia and the West. Here are the key issues at stake: - Montenegro's NATO accession - Montenegro's veteran leader Milo Djukanovic has officially transferred power to his successor Dusko Markovic, but the goal remains the same: to join NATO this year. The pro-Western path is, however, disputed -- and even triggered violent protests in 2015 in the small country of 620,000 people, who are predominantly Orthodox...

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    South Sudan: five things to know
    21.02.17
    AFP

    South Sudan, where the government on Monday declared famine in some parts of the country, is mired in an economic crisis due to a devastating civil war.Independent since 2011, the world's newest country was engulfed by civil war in 2013 after President Salva Kiir accused his rival and former deputy Riek Machar of plotting a coup against him.The conflict has left tens of thousands dead and more than three million displaced.Five things to know about the African nation:- Economy in ruins -Oil production -- from which South Sudan gained 98 percent of its revenues on its independence...

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    Syrian prisons: accusations of torture and executions
    03.02.17
    AFP

    The Syrian regime, accused by Amnesty International of large-scale hangings, had already been criticised for torture and summary executions in its prisons and intelligence services headquarters. Amnesty said on Tuesday as many as 13,000 people were hanged in five years at the notorious Saydnaya military-run prison near Damascus, accusing the regime of a "policy of extermination". Here are some of the accusations that have been made against the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. - 'Torture archipelago' - On July 3, 2012, US-based rights group Human Rights Watch said Syria...

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    INFOGRAPHIC: Transitional justice explained
    07.11.16
    Justice Info

    Since “transitional justice” is not a term that is well understood by the general public and is at the heart of JusticeInfo.net’s concerns, we thought it was time to explain the overall concept in a simple way, using images. Just below the infographic, you can find the, enriched text version. It supplements the information contained in the image, for those who wish to know more. Please feel free to share this infographic on your social networks, blogs and elsewhere. It is produced in Creative Commons and thus free of copyright, on condition that the source is quoted and the link is...

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    Five questions on the ICC
    21.10.16
    AFP

    Once a champion of the International Criminal Court (ICC), South Africa dealt a blow to the world tribunal Friday by announcing its intention to withdraw, a move that came on the heels of a similar move by Burundi. Here are five key questions following Pretoria's announcement: Is this the end of the ICC? Not according to Harvard law professor Alex Whiting. "International criminal justice has always had its ups and downs and setbacks in the past. This is another setback, but the court is not going to disappear," he told AFP. The ICC's founding Rome Statute "is a treaty and parties are free to leave it as they want," said Aaron Matta, senior researcher at the Hague Institute for Global...

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    Africa in the dock at the ICC
    21.10.16
    AFP

    The International Criminal Court -- dealt a blow Friday with South Africa's decision to withdraw from the tribunal -- has launched nine investigations in eight African countries since its establishment in 2002. A 10th was opened in Georgia, the only country outside Africa. Here are details of the main indictments and cases before the world's first permanent war crimes court. - Democratic Republic of Congo - Congolese rebel warlord Bosco Ntaganda went on trial in September last year on 18 war crimes and crimes against humanity charges. Ntaganda -- nicknamed "The Terminator" -- has pleaded not guilty to the charges related to atrocities committed by his Patriotic Forces for the...

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    Burundi crisis: from disputed polls to 'genocide' fears
    12.10.16
    AFP

    Burundi's move to leave the International Criminal Court (ICC) has turned the spotlight on months of political turmoil and violence that raised fears of "genocide" in a nation with a history of ethnic conflict. Here are some keys to understanding 18 months of crisis in the central African nation: - How did Burundi's crisis begin? - In April 2015, President Pierre Nkurunziza, in office since 2005, announced his plan to run for a controversial third term, triggering protests which authorities banned before unleashing a bloody crackdown that left an estimated 80 people dead. In May, a...

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    The Nobel Peace Prize for 2016

      The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2016 to Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220 000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people. The award should also be seen as a tribute to the Colombian people who, despite great hardships and abuses, have not given up hope of a just peace, and to all the parties who have contributed to the peace process. This tribute is paid, not least, to the representatives of the countless victims of the civil war. President Santos initiated the negotiations that culminated...

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    Timeline of Colombia conflit
    07.10.16
    AFP

    Colombian voters on Sunday rejected a peace accord to end a 52-year conflict between the state and communist FARC rebels, in a shock blow to the country's government. Here are key dates in Latin America's longest armed conflict, which has killed 260,000 people according to Colombian authorities. 1964: FARC formed The government launches an offensive against communist groups in the center and west of the country. On May 27, rebel commander Manuel Marulanda Velez flees the assault with 47 other men and forms the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). 1984: First peace bid On March 28, conservative president Belisario Betancur launches peace talks with the FARC under a...

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    Gabon's Ali Bongo: dynastic scion in his father's shadow
    24.09.16
    AFP

    Ali Bongo, whose re-election victory was upheld by Gabon's constitutional court Saturday, has long sought to emerge from the shadow of his father, Omar Bongo, who ruled the country for 41 years until his death in 2009. Bongo, a stockily-built 57-year-old, is variously known by his initials ABO, Ali B and the less flattering "Monsieur Fils" -- "Mr. Son". The last nickname has always irked him the most: Bongo has long insisted he owes his position to his own merits rather than to nepotism. Gabon is sitting on oil, minerals and tropical timber, and its per-capita national income is four times greater than that of most sub-Saharan nations. But a third of the population of 1.8 million...

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    Africa's disputed elections
    24.09.16
    AFP

    Gabon's disputed election, which culminated Saturday with the constitutional court's confirmation of President Ali Bongo's victory, is the latest in a long list of violence-tinged ballots in Africa: - Ivory Coast - After a five-month-standoff, incumbent Laurent Gbagbo was detained on April 11, 2011 by forces backing rival Alassane Ouattara, who was recognised internationally as the winner of Ivory Coast's October 2010 presidential election. Gbagbo had refused to stand down and some 3,000 people died in the post-election unrest. He is currently on trial before the International Criminal Court (ICC) for crimes against humanity in relation to the clashes. - Kenya - Violence sparked by...

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    Africa's disputed elections
    02.09.16
    AFP

    Clashes in Gabon have left five people dead since incumbent Ali Bongo was declared the winner of a disputed presidential vote. Bongo's victory over challenger Jean Ping by a razor-thin margin of just under 6,000 votes in a weekend poll sparked fighting in Libreville and Port-Gentil, the country's economic capital. Ping claims the vote was rigged. Africa has known similar electoral unrest in the past, including in Gabon. Here are some of the other violent elections that have dogged the continent: - Ivory Coast - After a five-month-standoff, incumbent Laurent Gbagbo was detained on April 11, 2011 by forces backing rival Alassane Ouattara, who was recognised internationally as the winner...

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    Timeline of the Colombian conflict
    25.08.16
    afp

    After a half-century of conflict, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian government announced Wednesday they have reached a historic peace deal. Here are key dates in Latin America's longest armed conflict, which has killed 260,000 people.   - 1964: FARC formed -   The government launches an offensive against communist groups in the center and west of the country. On May 27, rebel commander Manuel Marulanda Velez flees the government assault with 47 other men and forms the FARC.   - 1984: First peace bid -   On March 28, conservative president Belisario Betancur launches peace talks with the FARC under a bilateral truce. The initiative breaks down in 1987...

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