Arusha, November 20, 2003 (FH) – Genocide suspect and former minister offinance Emmanuel Ndindabahizi took up a ministerial post in the 1994 interimgovernment to avoid being killed, French history professor Bernard Lugantold the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on Thursday. Lugan testifying for the second day as an expert in the Ndindabahizi trial.

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He told the chamber the suspect had no option but to take up the post. “You told us Ndindabahizi was designated minister for finance. Could he haverefused that post?” Ndindabahizi's lead counsel Pascal Besnier (France)asked the expert who responded, “no, it was life or death. ”During cross examination the prosecutor Wallace Kapaya asked the expert ifhe agreed that Ndindabahizi supported massacres in order to live. Luganstated that the suspect had been taken hostage at the ministry of defencewhere the meeting to form the government was held and had to make optionsquickly. “He could not choose otherwise,” he stated. Asked further by Kapaya why Ndindabahizi did not flee the country when hewas in a position to, Lugan answered that the easiest option for the accusedwas to take up the post. The witness added that he was not surprised by evidence of some prosecutionwitnesses that Ndindabahizi had attended a rally at Kibuye prefecture in May1994 accompanied by former Prime Minister Jean Kambanda where he madeinciting remarks. “It is the minimum he could have done to avoid a machete or a club on hishead,” the witness said. Ndindabahizi was an active member of PSD and was the chairperson of the saidparty in his native Kibuye prefecture. Ndindabahizi 53, is charged with three counts including genocide andcrimes against humanity (extermination and murder). He allegedly perpetratedmassacres of civilians in his home prefecture of Kibuye, western Rwanda. The trial continues on Monday afternoon when the defence is expected topresent another witness. The trial is before Trial Chamber One composed of Judge Erik Mose (Norway)presiding, Judge Khalida Rachid Khan (Pakistan) and Solomy Balungi Bossa(Uganda). PJ/CE/FH (NB'1120e)